From Anaesthesia

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Wiley Online Library : Anaesthesia
Updated: 37 min 49 sec ago

Stop Before You Block stickers

14. August 2017 - 8:01
Categories: From Anaesthesia

Electronic tags and anaesthetic practice

14. August 2017 - 8:01
Categories: From Anaesthesia

Safety and efficacy of rescue flexible bronchoscopic intubation using the Bentson floppy-tip guidewire via a supraglottic airway in critically ill children

3. August 2017 - 12:55
Summary

Difficulty in tracheal intubation in paediatric intensive care patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Delays to intubation and interruption to oxygenation and ventilation are poorly tolerated. We developed a safe and atraumatic tracheal intubation technique. A floppy-tipped guidewire and airway exchange catheter were placed to a pre-determined length under bronchoscopic guidance while oxygenation and ventilation was maintained via a supraglottic airway device (SAD). We performed a retrospective review of this technique on patients who were either known to have or who had an unexpected difficultly in intubation. We describe the safety and experience of this in a broad range of critically ill children. Thirteen patients, median (IQR [range]) (9.0 (5.0–10.0 [4.0–12.0]) kg and 15.4 (12.1–23.2 [3.3–49.7]) months) underwent emergency tracheal intubation using this technique, after unsuccessful attempts at intubation using standard laryngoscopy blades. All intubations were successful at the first attempt using this technique and no airway trauma or significant clinical deteriorations were recorded.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

The mid-point transverse process to pleura (MTP) block: a new end-point for thoracic paravertebral block

1. August 2017 - 12:49
Summary

Current descriptions of thoracic paravertebral block techniques require the needle tip to be anterior to the superior costotransverse ligament. We hypothesised that an injection point midway between the posterior border of the transverse process and the pleura would result in spread to the paravertebral space. We completed bilateral injections of 5 ml methylene blue 0.2% midway between the posterior border of the transverse process and the pleura at T2, T4, T6, T8 and T10 in three unembalmed cadavers. The presence of methylene blue dye at the nerve root in the paravertebral space, the corresponding intercostal nerve and sympathetic chain at the level of injection, and at additional levels, was examined. We identified the superior costotransverse ligament, pleural displacement and spread to the erector spinae plane. We describe two case reports using this technique in patients. Our cadaver results and clinical cases demonstrate that, with the exception of cadaver 1, an injection point midway between the posterior border of the transverse process and pleura consistently achieved spread of dye at least to the paravertebral space at the level of injection, and frequently to adjacent levels. This may be a plausible explanation for the landmark technique's inability to reliably achieve a multilevel block. We describe a new ultrasound-guided technique for a single level paravertebral block.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

Differences between patients’ and clinicians’ research priorities from the Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership

31. July 2017 - 6:20
Summary

The James Lind Alliance Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership was a recent collaborative venture bringing approximately 2000 patients, carers and clinicians together to agree priorities for future research into anaesthesia and critical care. This secondary analysis compares the research priorities of 303 service users, 1068 clinicians and 325 clinicians with experience as service users. All three groups prioritised research to improve patient safety. Service users prioritised research about improving patient experience, whereas clinicians prioritised research about clinical effectiveness. Clinicians who had experience as service users consistently prioritised research more like clinicians than like service users. Individual research questions about patient experience were more popular with patients and carers than with clinicians in all but one case. We conclude that patients, carers and clinicians prioritise research questions differently. All groups prioritise research into patient safety, but service users also favour research into patient experience, whereas clinicians favour research into clinical effectiveness.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

The effect of pre-operative methylprednisolone on early endothelial damage after total knee arthroplasty: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

26. July 2017 - 6:40
Summary

We wished to evaluate whether inhibition of the systemic inflammatory response by a single pre-operative dose of methylprednisolone reduced markers of early endothelial damage after fast-track total knee arthroplasty. We randomly allocated 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral total knee arthroplasty (1:1) to receive either pre-operative intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg (methylprednisolone group) or isotonic saline (control group). All procedures were performed under spinal anaesthesia without a tourniquet, using a standardised multimodal analgesic regime. The outcomes included changes in Syndecan-1 concentrations, a marker of glycocalyx degradation, markers of endothelial cell damage and activation (plasma soluble thrombomodulin and sE-Selectin), and permeability by vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as C-reactive protein concentrations. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after surgery, with complete sampling from 63 patients for analyses. Methylprednisolone significantly reduced markers of endothelial damage at 24 h following surgery compared with saline (methylprednisolone group vs. control group, adjusted means (SEM)) expressed by circulating Syndecan-1: 11.6 (1.0) ng.ml−1 vs. 13.4 (1.1) ng.ml−1 p = 0.046; soluble thrombomodulin: 5.1 (0.1) ng.ml−1 vs. 5.7 (0.2) ng.ml−1, p = 0.009; sE-Selectin: 64.8 (1.8) ng.ml−1 vs. 75.7 (1.9) ng.ml−1, p = 0.001, and vascular endothelial growth factor: 35.3 (2.7) ng.ml−1 vs. 58.5 (2.8) ng.ml−1, p < 0.001. The effect of the intervention increased with time for soluble thrombomodulin, sE-Selectin and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was more pronounced in patients with high baseline values. Finally, methylprednisolone reduced the C-reactive protein response 24 h postoperatively; 31.1 (1.1) mg.l−1 vs. 68.4 (1.1) mg.l−1, p < 0.001. Pre-operative administration of methylprednisolone 125 mg reduced circulating markers of endothelial activation and damage, as well as the systemic inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty. These findings may have a positive effect on surgical outcome, but require studies in major surgery.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

The illusion of informed consent

26. July 2017 - 6:10
Categories: From Anaesthesia

A randomised controlled trial of oral chloral hydrate vs. intranasal dexmedetomidine before computerised tomography in children

25. July 2017 - 12:10
Summary

Chloral hydrate is commonly used to sedate children for painless procedures. Children may recover more quickly after sedation with dexmedetomidine, which has a shorter half-life. We randomly allocated 196 children to chloral hydrate syrup 50 mg.kg−1 and intranasal saline spray, or placebo syrup and intranasal dexmedetomidine spray 3 μg.kg−1, 30 min before computerised tomography studies. More children resisted or cried after drinking chloral hydrate syrup than placebo syrup, 72 of 107 (67%) vs. 42 of 87 (48%), p = 0.009, but there was no difference after intranasal saline vs. dexmedetomidine, 49 of 107 (46%) vs. 40 of 87 (46%), p = 0.98. Sedation was satisfactory in 81 of 107 (76%) children after chloral hydrate and 64 of 87 (74%) children after dexmedetomidine, p = 0.74. Of the 173 children followed up for at least 4 h after discharge, 38 of 97 (39%) had recovered normal function after chloral hydrate and 32 of 76 (42%) after dexmedetomidine, p = 0.76. Six children vomited after chloral hydrate syrup and placebo spray vs. none after placebo syrup and dexmedetomidine spray, p = 0.03.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

An evaluation of the validity of the pre-operative oxygen uptake efficiency slope as an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in elderly patients scheduled for major colorectal surgery

25. July 2017 - 11:43
Summary

This study aimed to investigate the validity of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope as an objective and submaximal indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in elderly patients scheduled for major colorectal surgery. Patients ≥ 60 years of age, with a metabolic equivalent score using the Veterans Activity Questionnaire ≤ 7 and scheduled for major colorectal surgery participated in a pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise test. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope was calculated up to different exercise intensities, using 100%, 90% and 80% of the exercise data. Data from 71 patients (47 men, mean (SD) age 75.2 (6.7) years) were analysed. The efficiency slope obtained from all the data was statistically significantly different from the values when 90% (p = 0.027) and 80% (p = 0.023) of the data were used. The 90% and 80% values did not differ significantly from each other (p = 0.152). Correlations between the oxygen uptake efficiency slope and the peak oxygen uptake ranged from 0.816 to 0.825 (all p < 0.001), and correlations between oxygen uptake efficiency slope and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold ranged from 0.793 to 0.805 (all p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the oxygen uptake efficiency slope is a sensitive and specific predictor of a peak oxygen uptake ≤ 18.2 ml.kg−1.min−1, with an area under the curve (95%CI) of 0.876 (0.780–0.972, p < 0.001) and a ventilatory anaerobic threshold ≤ 11.1 ml.kg−1.min−1, with an area under the curve (95%CI) of 0.828 (0.726–0.929, p < 0.001). These correlations suggest that the oxygen uptake efficiency slope provides a valid (sub)maximal measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in these patients, and the predictive ability described indicates that it might help discriminate patients at higher risk of postoperative morbidity. However, future research should investigate the prognostic value of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope for postoperative outcomes.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

A randomised, controlled trial of rectus sheath bupivacaine and intrathecal bupivacaine, without or with intrathecal morphine, vs. intrathecal bupivacaine and morphine after caesarean section

25. July 2017 - 11:15
Summary

We recruited 144 women of whom 131 underwent scheduled caesarean section and were allocated to intrathecal bupivacaine without (46) or with (47) morphine and postoperative rectus sheath bupivacaine; or intrathecal bupivacaine with morphine and postoperative rectus sheath saline (38). We measured postoperative pain with a 10-point numeric rating scale. The mean (SD) areas under the curve for pain on movement during 48 postoperative hours were 273.5 (63.6), 223.8 (80.7) and 223.8 (80.7), respectively, p = 0.008. There was no difference between women who had intrathecal morphine with or without rectus sheath bupivacaine, p = 1. The equivalent values for pain at rest were 160.8 (64.7), 85.8 (79.4) and 82.8 (74.3), respectively, p < 0.001. There was no difference between women who had intrathecal morphine with or without rectus sheath bupivacaine, p = 0.98.

Categories: From Anaesthesia

The effect of metrics-based feedback on acquisition of sonographic skills relevant to performance of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block

25. July 2017 - 10:35
Summary

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of metrics-based vs. non-metrics-based feedback on novices learning predefined competencies for acquisition and interpretation of sonographic images relevant to performance of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Twelve anaesthetic trainees were randomly assigned to either metrics-based-feedback or non-metrics-based feedback groups. After a common learning phase, all participants attempted to perform a predefined task that involved scanning the left axilla of a single volunteer. Following completion of the task, all participants in each group received feedback from a different expert in regional blocks (consultant anaesthetist) and were allowed to practise the predefined task for up to 1 h. Those in the metrics-based feedback group received feedback based on previously validated metrics, and they practised each metric item until it was performed satisfactorily, as assessed by the supervising consultant. Subsequently, each participant attempted to perform ultrasonography of the left axilla on the same volunteer. Two trained consultant anaesthetists independently scored the video recording pre- and post-feedback scans using the validated metrics list. Both groups showed improvement from pre-feedback to post-feedback scores. Compared with participants in the non-metrics-based feedback group, those in the metrics-based feedback group completed more steps: median (IQR [range]) 18.8 (1.5 [17–20]) vs. 14.3 (4.5 [11–18.5]), p = 0.009, and made fewer errors 0.5 (1 [0–1.5]) vs. 1.5 (2 [1–6]), p = 0.041 postfeedback. In this study, novices’ sonographic skills showed greater improvement when feedback was combined with validated metrics.

Categories: From Anaesthesia