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Wiley Online Library : Anaesthesia
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AAGBI: Safer pre-hospital anaesthesia 2017

3. January 2017 - 11:50
Summary

Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia with oral tracheal intubation is the technique of choice for trauma patients who cannot maintain their airway or achieve adequate ventilation. It should be carried out as soon as safely possible, and performed to the same standards as in-hospital emergency anaesthesia. It should only be conducted within organisations with comprehensive clinical governance arrangements. Techniques should be straightforward, reproducible, as simple as possible and supported by the use of checklists. Monitoring and equipment should meet in-hospital anaesthesia standards. Practitioners need to be competent in the provision of in-hospital emergency anaesthesia and have supervised pre-hospital experience before carrying out pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia. Training programmes allowing the safe delivery of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia by non-physicians do not currently exist in the UK. Where pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia skills are not available, oxygenation and ventilation should be maintained with the use of second-generation supraglottic airways in patients without airway reflexes, or basic airway manoeuvres and basic airway adjuncts in patients with intact airway reflexes.

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A randomised controlled trial comparing transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre-oxygenation with facemask pre-oxygenation in patients undergoing rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia

30. December 2016 - 10:34
Summary

Pre-oxygenation is an essential part of rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery, in order to increase the oxygen reservoir in the lungs. We performed a randomised controlled trial of transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre-oxygenation or facemask pre-oxygenation in patients undergoing emergency surgery. Twenty patients were allocated to each group. No patient developed arterial oxygen saturation < 90% during attempted tracheal intubation. Arterial blood gases were sampled from an arterial catheter immediately after intubation. The mean (SD) PaO2 was 43.7 (15.2) kPa in the THRIVE group vs. 41.9 (16.2) kPa in the facemask group (p = 0.722); PaCO2 was 5.8 (1.1) kPa in the THRIVE group vs. 5.6 (1.0) kPa in the facemask group (p = 0.631); arterial pH was 7.36 (0.05) in the THRIVE group vs. 7.34 (0.06) in the facemask group (p = 0.447). No airway rescue manoeuvres were needed, and there were no differences in the number of laryngoscopy attempts between the groups. In spite of this, patients in the THRIVE group had a significantly longer apnoea time of 248 (71) s compared with 123 (55) s in the facemask group (p < 0.001). Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange is a practicable method for pre-oxygenating patients during rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery; we found that it maintained an equivalent blood gas profile to facemask pre-oxygenation, in spite of a significantly longer apnoea time.

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Credible control groups and blinding

30. December 2016 - 6:00
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Evaluation of the accuracy of common weight estimation formulae in a Zambian paediatric surgical population

27. December 2016 - 14:40
Summary

Limited resources and access to healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with high rates of malnourished children, although many countries globally are demonstrating increasing childhood obesity. This study evaluated how well current age- or height-based formulae estimate the weight of children undergoing surgery in Zambia. All children under 14 years of age presenting for elective surgery at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, had both height and weight measured. Their actual weight was compared against estimated weight from various formulae. The Broselow tape outperformed all the age-based formulae, demonstrating the lowest median percentage error of −5.8%, with 46.0% of estimates falling within 10% of the actual measured weight (p < 0.001). Of the 1111 children who were eligible for World Health Organization growth standard appraisal, 88 (8%) met the weight criteria for severe acute malnutrition. Our results are consistent with other studies in finding that the Broselow tape is the best estimator of weight in a lower middle-income country, followed by the original Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula if the Broselow tape is unavailable.

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International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency

20. December 2016 - 13:15
Summary

Despite current recommendations on the management of pre-operative anaemia, there is no pragmatic guidance for the diagnosis and management of anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients. A number of experienced researchers and clinicians took part in an expert workshop and developed the following consensus statement. After presentation of our own research data and local policies and procedures, appropriate relevant literature was reviewed and discussed. We developed a series of best-practice and evidence-based statements to advise on patient care with respect to anaemia and iron deficiency in the peri-operative period. These statements include: a diagnostic approach for anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients; identification of patients appropriate for treatment; and advice on practical management and follow-up. We urge anaesthetists and peri-operative physicians to embrace these recommendations, and hospital administrators to enable implementation of these concepts by allocating adequate resources.

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Difficult tracheal tube passage and subglottic airway injury during intubation with the GlideScope® videolaryngoscope: a randomised, controlled comparison of three tracheal tubes

20. December 2016 - 7:31
Summary

Difficulty during placement of the tracheal tube is a known problem when intubating with the GlideScope®, which may lead to subglottic airway injury. This randomised, controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the resistance to passage of PVC (polyvinyl chloride), reinforced or BlockBuster tracheal tubes during intubation with the GlideScope. Secondary outcomes included the time taken to intubate and assessment of subglottic airway injury. One-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the data analysis. There was difficult tracheal tube passage (moderate or severe resistance) in 15 (21.4%) patients using the PVC tube compared with 4 (7.4%) and 1 (1.9%) using the reinforced and BlockBuster tubes, respectively (p = 0.003 for PVC vs. BlockBuster). The median (IQR [range]) time taken to intubate was 35 (27–45 [15–115]) s, 25 (20–27 [15–110]) s and 25 (22–30 [16–90]) s, respectively, (p < 0.001 for PVC vs. reinforced as well as PVC vs. BlockBuster). Subglottic airway injury, assessed using a fibreoptic bronchoscope after extubation, was higher with the PVC tube (p < 0.001) and the reinforced tube (p = 0.012) compared with the BlockBuster tube. We conclude that the BlockBuster tracheal tube is a better choice for orotracheal intubation with the GlideScope than PVC or reinforced tubes.

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Correction

18. December 2016 - 10:17
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Visualising odds ratios

18. December 2016 - 10:17
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AAGBI: Consent for anaesthesia 2017

18. December 2016 - 10:17
Summary

Previous guidelines on consent for anaesthesia were issued by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland in 1999 and revised in 2006. The following guidelines have been produced in response to the changing ethical and legal background against which anaesthetists, and also intensivists and pain specialists, currently work, while retaining the key principles of respect for patients’ autonomy and the need to provide adequate information. The main points of difference between the relevant legal frameworks in England and Wales and Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are also highlighted.

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