Author guidelines

Please note that from 1 October 2013, case reports can no longer be submitted directly to Anaesthesia.  Authors wishing to submit a case report for publication should do so via the Anaesthesia Cases website.  Case reports will be considered for publication online  at the Anaesthesia Cases website, and a proportion will be passed to Anaesthesia for possible publication in the Journal.  Those not published by Anaesthesia will be passed back to Anaesthesia Cases for publication there.  Once published online (or in the Journal for those accepted there), reports cannot be submitted for publication elsewhere.

Notice to contributors

Anaesthesia Cases is the official case report resource of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

All authors must meet the requirements of authorship as set out in the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, i.e. all have made a substantial contribution to the acquisition of data and its interpretation AND been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it.  Authors are advised that submissions may be checked for redundant publication and plagiarism using specific software.  Any case report that has been inactive (i.e. in 'draft' or 'locked to author' mode) for a period of eight weeks will be removed from the system.

The Editorial Team regret that failure to comply with the following requirements may result in a delay in publication of accepted reports, and strongly urge authors to use the following checklist before submitting their work.

We reserve the right to edit reports before publication. We aim to publish all case reports with a four-week timeframe, but this cannot be guaranteed. Your report must be original and not infringe on any third party’s intellectual property rights. Involvement of any identifiable patient property/rights must be accompanied by the appropriate consent or the report will be rejected outright. 

Once your report has been published, you will not be able to have it altered or removed. The Editorial Team however, reserves the right to edit/remove it should this be deemed necessary.

Authors hold responsibility for what is published on the website. The authors have sole responsibility for the facts listed and must check all references used in their report.

Any case report that has been inactive (i.e. in 'draft' or 'locked to author' mode) for a period of eight weeks will be removed from the system.

Guidance checklist

Before submitting your case report, please ensure that you have:

  • Included the names, job titles, email addresses and affiliations of all authors.
  • Checked the spelling and formatting of all authors’ names.
  • Ensured that a table (if used) has been aligned to fit the screen’s dimensions.
  • Uploaded a figure (if used) in non-compressed ‘jpg’, or ‘tiff’ formats (maximum size: 10MB see below). Please note, we cannot accept files in other formats. 

Content and style of case reports

Please note that Anaesthesia Cases uses UK English spelling e.g. “ise” not “ize”, “anaes” not “anes” etc. A typical report will have the following sections: 


Authors (with institutional affiliations)

(NB correspondence will always be to the first author)

A Summary of fewer than 150 words should briefly describe the case and state the main learning points that arose as a consequence. 

The Introduction should give a concise account of the background to the report and is limited to 300 words.

Case report
The description of the case should anonymise the patient(s) as far as possible. The report will usually contain a succinct history of the patient (e.g. relevant previous medical history, anaesthetic history and the context of the operative procedure), a description of the occurrence being reported and the patient(s)’s subsequent progress. The report is limited to 500 words.  

The Discussion should not merely recapitulate the report but should present your interpretation against a background of existing knowledge. A brief review of relevant literature is often warranted. The discussion is limited to 1000 words. 

The authors should acknowledge those who have made a substantial contribution to the preparation of the manuscript but whose contribution does not fulfil the requirements for authorship (see above). A statement ‘Published with the written consent of the patient(s) (or their parent/legal guardian if a child)’ should be included. (See ‘Ethical considerations’ below).

Competing interests
A statement should be made at the end of all manuscripts, stating any funding obtained and any potential competing interests. For example: ‘No external funding and no competing interests declared’ or ‘Funded by the XXXX, grant no. yyyy’ or ‘Author AB has received payments from ZZZZ Ltd for consultancy work’ etc. as appropriate. 

Up to ten references are permitted. Number references (including articles in press) consecutively in the order they appear in the text, using Arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets on the line (not superscript). Use [1-4] instead of [1,2,3,4]. Abstracts may be quoted as references so long as they have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Internet sites may be quoted as references by listing them in the normal way in the text (using Arabic numerals). Unpublished observations, personal communications and abstracts published only in proceedings of meetings should be quoted within the text of the manuscript in parentheses. Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as unpublished observations. References cited for the first time in a Table or Figure should be numbered in the sequence established by the first mention of the particular Table/Figure in the text. All references (including those in press) should be listed at the end of the text in the order they are quoted. For internet sites, please include the date accessed in parentheses. List all authors unless there are seven or more, in which case give the first three followed by ‘et al.’. Spell out the names of all journals in full, and give the first and last page number, not just the first. 

1. Author AB, Author CD. Title of paper. Journal Title Written Out in Full in Italics 1999; 12: 123-4.
2. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, et al. Seven or more authors – what’s the point? (chapter title). In: Editor GH, Editor IJ, eds. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, 1998: 345-67.
3. Author AB. Book Title, 5th edn. Place: Publisher, 2000.
4. Author(s) of website. Title of document/page.'s (accessed 01/01/2010). 

One Table is permitted and must be added using the table insertion button. Please do not add a border as it will not display properly if your case report is submitted to Anaesthesia for consideration.  The Table should have a brief Caption (legend text) to accompany it. The Caption should provide enough information for readers to follow it without having to look through the text. The Caption should explain whether the values refer to mean (SD), number (proportion), etc. Abbreviations should not be mentioned in the Caption without explanation. Abbreviations used in the body of the Table should in the order in which they are first mentioned, using the following symbols (N.B. not superscript) in the following order: *, *, †, ‡, §, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, etc. 

One figure is permitted. Please upload the figure as a separate file, rather than embedded in the body of the text, and in TIFF or high-resolution JPEG. We ask that they are both supplied at a resolution of 300 pixels per inch for photographs and 600 pixels per inch for line art or a combination of photograph and labelling. The maximum file size you should upload is 10 MB. The title, plot frame, gridlines and legend box within the graph itself should be removed, with symbols and error bars explained in the caption (legend text). Avoid the use of 3-D unless absolutely necessary. The figure caption should include an explanation of the symbols used to provide enough information for readers to follow it without having to look through the text.


In general, Anaesthesia Cases does not encourage the use of abbreviations, especially in the Summary, since their frequent use makes reports cluttered and difficult to read. However, we will accept abbreviations in the following circumstances:

• Universal abbreviations that do not need to be written out in full when first mentioned in the text, e.g. ASA, BMI, ECG, ICU, HDU, SD, SEM, 95% CI, IQR, ANOVA, SpO2, FIO2, pH.

• Acceptable common abbreviations that can be used but should be written out in full at their first mention, e.g.: CNS, CSF, HME, PEEP, PCA, SCBU, CTG, EEG, BIS, CVP, PAP, PCWP, ECT – unless they’re only mentioned a few times, in which case please spell them out throughout. 

Numbers and units

Numbers should be spelled out in full when they start a sentence, and when they are less than 10 (unless they are followed by units of measurement). Commas are not used to indicate thousands; thus 2000 and 20 000 instead of 2,000 and 20,000. Please give costs in sterling (£) with equivalent Euros and US dollars (€/$) in brackets. Use the format not mg/kg for all units. Use SI units throughout the text except for vascular pressure measurements (mmHg or cmH2O) and haemoglobin concentration (g.dl-1). Litres are indicated by lower case ‘l’ not upper ‘L’. Use the 24-hour clock for times. 


All case reports must be submitted in English. 

Submission preparation

All sections of the form are mandatory apart from the figure, table, and references. If importing text into the sections, please use the ‘clear formatting’ button. 

The authors must obtain written permission for the use of text, tables, and/or illustrations from any copyrighted sources, and agree to supply such written permissions to Anaesthesia Cases upon request.

The submission must NOT have been previously published, nor currently under consideration by another journal. 

Ethical considerations

Whatever their other merits, reports will only be considered for publication in Anaesthesia Cases if they adhere to the highest ethical standards. Submission of a case report requires the written consent of the subject (or written assent of the parent/legal guardian) to publication, using the specific form that may be found here (NB please DO NOT submit this document together with your report - though please note that authors may be asked to provide the signed form as evidence, should a complaint result in a subsequent investigation). This applies to all reports, whether a photograph of the patient is to be used or not. 

While the Editor recognises that it might not always be possible to seek such consent (or the assent of the next-of-kin if the patient has died or is incapable of giving informed consent), the onus will be on the authors to demonstrate that this exception applies in their case. In these circumstances please contact the Editor directly for advice. In all other circumstances cases without appropriate consent will be rejected automatically.

Please state in the Acknowledgement Section: ‘Published with the ‘written consent of the patient(s)’ or ‘written assent of [insert relationship, e.g. parent, guardian or next-of-kin]’ or similar, as appropriate. 

Review process

All reports are reviewed by the Editor and at least one Assistant Editor. The Editor’s verdict on acceptance or rejection is final. Reports transferred to the journal Anaesthesia undergo full editorial review and will be handled by the journal’s Editorial Office. Full guidance is available via the journal’s website (


The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the Editorial Team cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in Anaesthesia Cases. The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland or the Editorial Team.